Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements
Developing a code of ethics is an essential characteristic of a profession. Along with licensure, standards of care and certification, it is one of the means of professional self-regulation. A code of ethics indicates a profession's acceptance of the responsibility and trust with which it has been invested by society.
As early as 1893 nursing leaders saw the development of a code of ethics as a task of the professional organization. It was not until the 1926 American Nurses' Association Convention that the first Code of Ethics was adopted. Developed to create an awareness of ethical considerations, this early code dealt with personal behavior, the nurse's relationship with the physician as well as professiona1 behavior.
The American Nurses' Association periodically revises the code (the present Code was written in 1976). It serves to inform both nurses and the society we serve that we have professional expectations and requirements in ethical matters. Along with its interpretative statements the code serves as a framework to make ethical decisions.
The Code for Nurses is based on belief about the nature of individuals, nursing, health and society. Recipients and providers of nursing services are viewed as individuals and groups who possess basic rights and responsibilities, and whose values and circumstances command respect at all times. Nursing encompasses the promotion and restoration of health' the prevention of illness. and the alleviation of suffering. The statements of the Code and their interpretation provide guidance for conduct and relationship in carrying out nursing responsibilities consistent with the ethical obligations of the profession and quality in nursing care.
Code for Nurses
With Interpretive Statements
1.1 Respect for Human Dignity
Truth telling and the process of reaching informed choice underlie the exercise of self-determination, which is basic to respect for persons. Clients should be as fully involved as possible in the planning and implementation of their own health care. Clients have the moral right to determine what will be done with their own person; to be given accurate information, and all the information necessary for making informed judgments; to be assisted with weighing the benefits and bur dens of options in their treatment; to accept, refuse, or terminate treatment without coercion; and to be given necessary emotional support. Each nurse has an obligation to be knowledgeable about the moral and legal rights of all clients and to protect and support those rights. In situations in which the client lacks the capacity to make a decision, a surrogate decision-maker should be designated.
Individuals are interdependent members of the community. Taking into account both individual rights and the interdependence of persons in decision making, the nurse recognizes those situations in which individual rights to autonomy in health care may temporarily be overridden to preserve the life of the human community; for example, when a disaster demands triage or when an individual presents a direct danger to others. The many variables involved make it imperative that each case be considered with full awareness of the need to preserve the rights and responsibilities of clients and the demands of justice. The suspension of individual rights must always be considered a deviation to be tolerated as briefly as possible.
1.2 Status and Attributes of Clients
1.3 The Nature of Health Problems.
The nurse's concern for human dignity and for the provision of high quality nursing care is not limited by personal attitudes or beliefs. If ethically opposed to interventions in a particular case because of the procedures to be used, the nurse is justified in refusing to participate. Such refusal should be made known in advance and in time for other appropriate arrangements to be made for the client's nursing care. If the nurse becomes involved in such a case and the client's life is in jeopardy the nurse is obliged to provide for the client's safety, to avoid abandonment, and to withdraw only when assured that alternative sources of nursing care are available to the client.
The measures nurses take to care for the dying client and the client's family emphasize human contact. They enable the client to live with as much physical, emotional, and spiritual comfort as possible, and they maximize the values the client has treasured in life. Nursing care is directed toward the prevention and relief of the suffering commonly associated with the dying process. The nurse may provide interventions to relieve symptoms in the dying client even when the interventions entail substantial risks of hastening death.
1.4 The Setting for Health Care
2.1 The Client's Right to Privacy
2.2 Protection of Information.
Information documenting the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of care required for the purposes of peer review, third-party payment, and other quality assurance mechanisms must be disclosed only under defined policies, mandates, or protocols. These written guidelines must assure that the rights, well being, and safety of the client are maintained.
2.3 Access to Records
If the nurse wishes to use a client's treatment record for research or non-clinical purposes in which anonymity cannot be guaranteed, the client's consent must be obtained first. Ethically, this ensures the client's right to privacy; legally, it protects the client against unlawful invasion of privacy.
3.1 Safeguarding the Health and Safety of the Client.
3.2 Acting on Questionable Practice
There should be an established process for the reporting and handling of incompetent, unethical, or illegal practice within the employment setting so that such reporting can go through official channels without causing fear of reprisal. The nurse should be knowledgeable about the process and be prepared to use it if necessary. When questions are raised about the practices of individual practitioners or of health care systems, written documentation of the observed practices or behaviors must be available to the appropriate authorities. State nurses associations should be prepared to provide assistance and support in the development and evaluation of such processes and in reporting procedures.
When incompetent, unethical, or illegal practice on the part of anyone concerned with the client's care is not corrected within the employment setting and continues to jeopardize the client's welfare and safety, the problem should be reported to other appropriate authorities such as practice committees of the pertinent professional organizations or the legally constituted bodies concerned with licensing of specific categories of health workers or professional practitioners. Some situations may warrant the concern and involvement of all such groups. Accurate reporting and documentation undergird all actions.
3.3 Review Mechanisms.
4.1 Acceptance of Responsibility and Accountability.
4.2 Responsibility for Nursing Judgment and Action
4.3Accountability for Nursing Judgment and Action
The nursing profession continues to develop ways to clarify nursing's accountability to society. The contract between the profession and society is made explicit through such mechanisms as (a) the Code for Nurses, (b) the standards of nursing practice, (c) the development of nursing theory derived from nursing research in order to guide nursing actions (d) educational requirements for practice, (e) certification, and (f) mechanisms for evaluating the effectiveness of the nurse's performance of nursing responsibilities.
Nurses are accountable for judgments made and actions taken in the course of nursing practice. Neither physicians' orders nor the employing agency's policies relieve the nurse of accountability for actions taken and judgments made.
5.1 Personal Responsibility for Competence
5.2 Measurement of Competence in Nursing Practice
5.3 Intra professional Responsibility for Competence in Nursing Care
6.1 Changing Functions
6.2 Accepting Responsibilities.
6.3 Consultation and Collaboration
6.4 Delegation of Nursing Activities
7.1 The Nurse and Development of Knowledge.
7.2 Protection of Rights of Human Participants in Research
It is the duty of the nurse functioning in any research role to maintain vigilance in protecting the life, health, and privacy of human subjects from both anticipated and unanticipated risks and in assuring informed consent. Subjects' integrity, privacy, and rights must be especially safeguarded if the subjects are unable to protect themselves because of incapacity or because they are in a dependent relationship to the investigator. The investigation should be discontinued if its continuance might be harmful to the subject.
7.3 General Guidelines for Participating in Research
Research should be conducted and directed by qualified persons. The nurse who participates in research in any capacity should be fully informed about both the nurse's and the client's rights and obligations.
8.1 Responsibility to the Public for Standards
Established standards and guidelines for nursing practice provide guidance for the delivery of professional nursing care and are a means for evaluating care received by the public. The nurse has a personal responsibility and commitment to clients for implementation and maintenance of optimal standards of nursing practice.
8.2 Responsibility to the Profession for Standards.
Nurse educators have the additional responsibility to maintain optimal standards of nursing practice and education in nursing education programs and in any other settings where planned learning activities for nursing students take place.
9.1 Responsibility for Conditions of Employment
9.2 Maintaining Conditions for High Quality Nursing Care
10.1 Protection from Misinformation and Misrepresentation
The nurse does not give or imply endorsement to advertising, promotion, or sale of commercial products or services in a manner that may be interpreted as reflecting the opinion or judgment of the profession as a whole. The nurse may use knowledge of specific services or products in advising an individual client, since this may contribute to the client's health and well being. In the course of providing information or education to clients or other practitioners about commercial products or services, however, a variety of similar products or services should be offered or described so the client or practitioner can make an informed choice.
10.2 Maintaining the Integrity of Nursing
Nurses should refrain from casting a vote in any deliberations involving health care services or facilities where the nurse has business or other interests that could be construed as a conflict of interest.
11.1 Collaboration with Others to Meet Health Needs
11.2 Responsibility to the Public.
11.3 Relationships with Other Disciplines
American Nurses Association Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, Washington, DC: ANA, 1985.
To order a copy of the Code for Nurses please call the ANA Customer Care Department at 1-800-274-4ANA or visit the ANA web site at: Nursing World .
This information was Downloaded from a Web page on the net I believe the link above ( Nursing World ) their name has been kept here to identify origin of work but in no way it is used to indicate any relationship or condoning of my web site. Also it should be noted that no wording has been changed and that only hyperlinks to the words contained have been added to make my point.
Matter of fact the nursing community has been pretty quiet also on this issue which really surprises me since I have contacted just about every one. I can not believe that all the leaders of the known organizations can not see the impact that this case will eventually have on their members. It is a Shame that they along with most of us do not become involved or concern until the heavy burden of experience is placed upon us.
Time will tell.
This is the part that shows you care a little extra. Please take the time and go to some of these areas and let them know how you feel, and what they can do to help. Thanks so much. Also, contact any other person you wish. It is a free country still. SPECIALLY in my place!!
E-Mail Address for Nursing Organizations
Email Address for US Senate………………
E-Mail Address for US House of Representatives
Is a BEARof a job but if you like you can also reach the whole Nation trough the air ways via Radio and TV Links
We the people can make changes.!!
And if you E-Mail this Journalists will help us all.
And if you E-Mail this Journalists will help us all.
************* NOTE OF INTEREST *********************
I have been caring for the American Way of life for a while now.... you can see the other part of me on the other Web Site that I also maintain. That Web-Site deal's with the POW/MIA Issue Please visit it and get involved there are still men left behind and they need your help also. Visit " THE REAPER'S EDGE A POW's SCREAMED ECHO IN CYBERSPACE "
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.Contacting Jose via E-ail..Mailto:email@example.com
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